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Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th
pressure



pres·sure [pressure pressures pressured pressuring] noun, verb BrE [ˈpreʃə(r)] NAmE [ˈpreʃər]
noun  
 
WHEN STH PRESSES
1. uncountable the force or weight with which sth presses against sth else
The nurse applied pressure to his arm to stop the bleeding.
The barriers gave way under the pressure of the crowd.  
 
OF GAS/LIQUID
2. uncountable, countable the force produced by a particular amount of gas or liquid in a confined space or container; the amount of this
air/water pressure
Check the tyre pressure (= the amount of air in a tyre) regularly.
a pressure gauge (= an instrument used for measuring the pressure of a liquid or a gas)
see also blood pressure  
 
OF ATMOSPHERE
3. uncountable the force of the atmosphere on the earth's surface
A band of high/low pressure is moving across the country.
see also atmospheric  
 
PERSUASION/FORCE
4. uncountable the act of trying to persuade or to force sb to do sth
~ (for sth) The pressure for change continued to mount.
~ (on sb) (to do sth) There is a great deal of pressure on young people to conform.
The government eventually bowed to popular pressure (= they agreed to do what people were trying to get them to do).
Teenagers may find it difficult to resist peer pressure.  
 
STRESS
5. uncountable (also pressuresplural)difficulties and feelings of anxiety that are caused by the need to achieve or to behave in a particular way
She was unable to attend because of the pressure of work.
You need to be able to handle pressure in this job.
How can anyone enjoy the pressures of city life?

Word Origin:
late Middle English: from Old French, from Latin pressura, from press- ‘pressed’, from the verb premere.

Thesaurus:
pressure noun
1. U, C
The nurse applied gentle pressure to his arm to stop the bleeding.
strain • • stress • • weight • • load
under the pressure/strain/stress/weight/load
high/low pressure/stress
put pressure/strain/stress/weight on sth
Pressure, strain or stress? Pressure can be heavy, firm, gentle or light. Both strain and stress usually suggest that there is too much pressure.
2. U
My parents never put any pressure on me to work in the family business.
force • |formal coercion • • compulsion
pressure/compulsion on sb
under pressure/coercion/compulsion
pressure/compulsion to do sth
3. U, pl.
How can anyone enjoy the pressures of city life?
stress • • strain • • demands • • tension • |informal, especially journalism heat
be under pressure/stress/strain
pressure/stress/demands/heat on sb
cope with the pressure/stress/strain/demands/tension
Pressure or stress? It is common to say that sb is suffering from stress; pressure may be the thing that causes stress.

Synonyms:
pressure
stress • tension • strain
These are all words for the feelings of anxiety caused by the problems in sb's life.
pressure • difficulties and feelings of anxiety that are caused by the need to achieve sth or to behave in a particular way: She was unable to attend because of the pressures of work.
stress • pressure or anxiety caused by the problems in sb's life: stress-related illnesses
pressure or stress?
It is common to say that sb is suffering from stress, while pressure may be the thing that causes stress.
tension • a feeling of anxiety and stress that makes it impossible to relax: nervous tension
strain • pressure on sb/sth because they have too much to do or manage; the problems, worry or anxiety that this produces: I found it a strain looking after four children.
to be under pressure/stress/strain
considerable pressure/stress/tension/strain
to cause stress/tension/strain
to cope with the pressure/stress/tension/strain
to relieve/release the pressure/stress/tension/strain
to be suffering from stress/tension

Example Bank:
He's felt under pressure since his wife had the operation.
His own desires conflict with external pressures to conform.
Hospital staff are coming under pressure to work longer hours.
It's an ideal place in which to relax and escape the pressures of modern life.
Large companies were criticized for using pressure tactics against small suppliers.
Management is under pressure to set an example on pay restraint.
My parents never put any pressure on me to get a job.
Pressure sensors in the seats tell the system which ones aren't occupied.
Reducing the swelling will relieve the pressure on her spine.
Retailers face added pressure to have the products available by Christmas.
She started smoking because of peer pressure.
The cruise was a welcome relief from the pressure of work.
The economic pressures on small businesses are intense.
The editor bowed to pressure from his staff, and the article was suppressed.
The government bowed to popular pressure and repealed the law.
There is a constant drive to exploit workers and intensify the pressure of work.
There is intense pressure on her to resign.
There's a lot of pressure on the soldiers preparing for battle.
They are looking for ways to ease the pressure of their stress-filled, competitive existence.
This concession would not have happened but for the pressure that was brought to bear on the authorities.
This has heightened pressure for economic sanctions against the regime.
This puts upward pressure on prices.
When more people move into an area, that creates pressures.
an instrument for measuring blood pressure
pressure for change in the country's economy
pressure from religious groups
pressure on foreign diplomats
the use of the Internet to put international pressure on authoritarian regimes
A deal was made under intense political pressure.
Check the tyre pressure regularly.
Her family put great pressure on her not to marry him.
Manufacturers are under pressure to put profit ahead of safety.
My parents never put any pressure on me to work in the family business.
She suffers from high blood pressure.
Teenagers may find it difficult to resist peer pressure.
The President is coming under pressure to call a referendum.
The door swung open beneath the gentle pressure of Jill's hand.
The government eventually bowed to popular pressure.
a pressure gauge
air/water pressure
Idioms:put pressure on somebody under pressure
 
verb often passive (especially NAmE) (BrE also pres·sur·ize)~ sb (into sth/into doing sth) | ~ sb to do sth
to persuade sb to do sth, especially by making them feel that they have to or should do it
Don't let yourself be pressured into making a hasty decision.
Verb forms:

Word Origin:
late Middle English: from Old French, from Latin pressura, from press- ‘pressed’, from the verb premere.

Example Bank:
Don't let yourself be pressured into making a hasty decision.
He pressured her to take on more wealthy clients.
His father pressured him to accept a job in the bank.
No one has the right to pressure you. You can always say no.
They're beginning a postcard campaign to pressure the Department of the Environment.

 
See also:pressurize

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